Czy dualizm psychofizyczny jest uniwersalny? Problem umysłu-ciała w filozofii chińskiej

Gut A., Stoch N., (2018) Czy dualizm psychofizyczny jest uniwersalny? Problem umysłu-ciała w filozofii chińskiej, in: Filozofować eksperymentalnie – umysł w świecie kultury (red. A. Gut, Z. Wróblewski), Wydawnictwo KUL, Lublin, s. 75-100.

The article compares Western and Chinese perspectives on the relationship between the mind and the body, and discusses the question of the cross-cultural universality of mind-body dualism.. The West has traditionally viewed the mind and the body in dualistic terms while the Chinese tradition has adopted a holistic perspective. It is common in debates about the universalism of mind-body dualism to refer to the category of xin (心) present within the Chinese tradition. A linguistic analysis of the category of xin demonstrates that it connotes both cognitive and emotional faculties. An analysis of philosophical texts shows that xin is argued there to be a cognitive tool, a “mind organ” and the seat of human morality. Some researchers take these to be sufficient reasons to assume that, in contrast to Western dualism, Chinese thought assumes a holistic perspective on the mind and the body. Others, however, point to certain dichotomies that still persist in Chinese tradition, and argue that the view is best described as moderate dualism. The present text offers a preliminary theoretical sketch of future cross-cultural research that will inquire into the differences in thinking about the mind and the body across Western and Chinese cultures.

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